With contributions by R.T.J. Cappers, S. Drudi, M. Gleba, A. Hauptmann, G. Siracusano, and D. Zampetti.
Between 1977 and 1986 an Italian expedition from the Sapienza University of Rome carried out six archaeological campaigns in the well-known Predynastic site of Maadi (4th mill. B.C.). The investigation, conducted by the Missione Italiana per le Ricerche Preistoriche in Egitto e Sudan (MIRPES) under the direction of S. M. Puglisi and A. Palmieri, covered an area of around 450m2 and was located in the eastern part of the ancient settlement, diametrically opposite to the more recent diggings carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. This publication is the result of the elaboration of the unpublished data collected during these campaigns and is conceived as an excavation report. In particular it was possible to deepen the stratigraphic aspect which was fundamental for understanding the dynamics of formation and development of the settlement and this allowed us to complete the information contained in past monographs dealing with the first excavations carried out at Maadi. Finally we also could study for the first time the artefacts in a chronological perspective and to reconsider this site in the light of the latest research made in the Nile Delta.
This, the third and final volume of reports dedicated to the publication of the 1933–1986 excavations at Khirbat al-Karak (Kh. Kerak)/Tel Bet Yeraḥ, describes the contiguous Hellenistic and Early Islamic remains excavated in the northern and southern parts of the site. These form an important component in the history of occupation on the mound and make a significant contribution to the archaeology of both periods. Their identification at the site in fact predates that of the Bronze Age remains: Eleazar Sukenik, who was asked to visit the road cut through ‘the Kerak’ in 1921, was the first to note their existence (Sukenik 1922), and the first to posit the identification of the site with Philoteria (see Chapter 2).
Substantial Hellenistic remains have been found, by several excavators, in virtually every part of the mound (Plan 1.1; Tables 1.1, 1.2): in all the areas excavated along its southern side (Areas BS, MS/EY, MK, GE), along considerable parts of the last Early Bronze Age fortification line (Wall C, principally in Towers 5, 8, 11 and 14 and near the ‘sortie tunnel’ [C10]) and in the various excavations of the northern sector (Areas GB, DK). In the central part of the mound, evidence is spotty, with the more substantial remains in Areas AC and BH, pits only in Areas UN and RV, and few finds reported in soundings undertaken by Delougaz and Haines in the western part of the mound. This distribution might indicate a bimodal concentration of houses on the two higher portions of the mound in the north and south, with the intervening saddle being, perhaps, only sporadically occupied (Table 1.2).
Earlier considerations of Hellenistic Philoteria, based for the most part on the sketchy preliminary publications of the excavation and on chance finds such as a cache of silver tetradrachms attributed to the site (Baramki 1944) and the later Tyche presumably found in the road cut (Sukenik 1922), had asserted the existence of a fortified town occupying the entire mound (Negev 1976; Hestrin 1993). The attribution of the fortifications (EB III Wall C, described in BY I: Chapter 6) to the Hellenistic period rested both on Hellenistic finds made by Bar-Adon within several towers and the assumption that round towers should be ascribed, by default, a Hellenistic date. However, the most recent considerations of the latest stone fortifications, by Getzov (2006) and by Greenberg et al. (BY I), supply evidence for an original Early Bronze Age date for Wall C, as well as for the presence of Hellenistic burials in or near the fortifications that imply that at least parts of the wall were considered to be separate from the settlement. The recent work of the Tel Aviv University team (Greenberg and Paz 2010) has allowed us to observe site formation processes in various parts of the mound. These observations suggest that when Hellenistic settlers first arrived at the site, most of which had been abandoned for two millennia, they found not the gently undulating surface of the modern mound, but an uneven surface pockmarked with ruins and with prominent stone foundations of fortifications and of monumental structures. The main concentrations of houses were built away from the massive earlier remains, which were used for refuse disposal and possibly for crafts such as potting (a large pit with kiln fragments was excavated in the Early Bronze Age Circles Building in 2009).
Post-Hellenistic presence on Tel Bet Yeraḥ was quite limited in extent and did not produce massive deposits. Early excavators reported Roman remains, but virtually nothing of this period can be identified in the remaining collections. Byzantine occupation appears to be limited to the church excavated and published by Delougaz and Haines (1960). The same excavators also identified substantial Early Islamic construction above the church; this was associated with the historical Umayyad palatial site of al-Ṣinnabra, although it was generally thought that the palace itself was located north of the mound.
With contibutions by Vladimir Avrutis, David Ben-Shlomo, Daphna Ben-Tor, Ruhama Bonfil, Manuel Cimadevilla, Simon Conner, Wayne Horowitz, Othmar Keel, Ron Kehati, Dimitri Laboury, Ron Lavi, Justin Lev-Tov, Marcel Marée, Nimrod Marom, Mario Martin, Liat Naeh, Tallay Ornan, Laura A. Peri, Maud Spaer, Miriam Tadmor, Dalit Weinblatt, Naama Yahalom-Mack, and David Ziegler
The seventh volume of the Hazor final reports, published in 2017 by Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is dedicated to the Bronze Age finds in Area A, located at the center of the acropolis. This monumental volume brings to light the results of the renewed excavations in 1990–2012. Part I presents the stratigraphic analysis of the architectural finds dated to the third and second millennia (Strata XX–XIII), offering a new understanding of some of these strata. Part II offers an analysis of the ceramic finds dating from the Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. This part includes typological schemes of the Bronze Age ceramic finds from Hazor as well as a discussion of the functional, regional and chronological aspects of the Hazor assemblages. Part III presents the many other finds dating from the Bronze Age, including statues, figurines, jewellery, tools, weapons and cuneiform tablets.
752 pages; 34 × 23.5 cm; hard cover. Numerous photos and drawings; ISBN 978-965-221-112-5; price: $120 ($90 to IES members); postage: airmail USA $58; Europe $30; surface mail $20
In this book the authors publish thirteen tombs and two pyres excavated by the Cyprus Department of Antiquities in the cemeteries of Palaepaphos, on the western part of Cyprus. More tombs from the same cemeteries were published by the same authors in 2015 and earlier (by V. Karageorghis) in 1983. They date to the Late Cypriote IIIB (ca. 1100-1050 B.C.) and the Cypro-Geometric I-III periods (ca. 1050-750 B.C.) There is an excavation report for each tomb, a detail catalogue of objects and a commentary for all ceramic types and other items found in each tomb and a note on chronology. A chapter on historical conclusions places these tombs against their historical background. The transition from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age (Cypro-Geometric period) is marked by the development of an elite society of Greek settlers from the Aegean, who introduced not only artistic styles but also funerary customs.
Of particular interest among the tomb gifts are the bronze vessels; of an exceptionally fine quality is a bronze amphoroid crater found in a tomb of the 11th cent. B.C., whose handles and rim were cast and are decorated in relief with pictorial motifs. Ten appendices written by specialists deal with topics like epigraphy, human and animal skeletal remains, marine molluscs, mineralized textiles etc.
The publication of the full report of the Tel Beer-sheba Iron Age remains is a fulfillment of a scientific dream. The excavations at Tel Beer-sheba, carried out under the auspices of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, were the highlight of Yohanan Aharoni’s vast research program in the Beer-sheba Valley. He directed this program from 1969 until his untimely death in 1976 at the age of 56. The final season of excavations at Tel Beer-sheba, the eighth, took place in the summer of 1976 and was carried out after Aharoni’s demise by his chief assistants, Ze’ev Herzog, Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, and Anson F. Rainey. The latter two regrettably did not live to see the completion of this publication, but they shared in the work, as did the young staff members who enabled the Tel Beer-sheba project to become a reality.
During the National Parks Authority site development, there was further exposure, mainly of the water supply systems, directed by Ze’ev Herzog with David Sappo (Western Quarter, 1990–1991), with Tsvika Tsuk (the well, 1993) and finally with Ido Ginaton (the water-system, 1994–1995).
Now, after a lengthy process of analyzing the excavations in the storerooms of Tel Aviv University’s Institute of Archaeology and digging through the endless documentary material amassed, the full data is proudly presented. This work is offered not merely as a final report but as a starting point for further scientific inquiry on the abundant architectural, artifactual, and ecofactual data from Tel Beer-sheba.
Volume I reports on the stratigraphy and architecture, volume 2 on the pottery; and volume 3 on the artifacts, ecofacts, and also provides concluding studies. The three volumes are profusely illustrated and an essential resource for anyone interested in the history of Judah, the Beer-sheba Valley, the site itself, and life during the Iron Age in the southern Levant.
This volume publishes the results of the excavations conducted at Tel Megiddo by Yigael Yadin in four short seasons (1960, 1966, 1967 and 1971-2). The expedition's main focus was the northeastern sector of the mound, where excavation uncovered the remains of an extensive public structure attributed to Stratum VA-IVB, which was named "Palace 6000". Additional probes were carried out in Area C in the southwestern part of the mound, intended to examine the stratigraphic connection with Gallery 629 and the cave of the spring, and Sounding 2153 in the area of the staircase outside the outer Iron Age gate. Based on the surviving documentation, the volume presents the architectural remains and ceramic assemblages uncovered in the excavation, together with the hoard of small finds (Stratum VIA) found below "Palace 6000". The author presents Yadin's conclusions as well as her own interpretation of the results of the excavation, and offers a new stratigraphic analysis of some previously published Iron Age II remains excavated by other expeditions.
Purchase from the publisher: The Israel Exploration Society, P.O.B. 7041, Jerusalem, Israel. Fax: 972-2-6247772. E-mail: email@example.com
Sahab is one of the largest Jordanian archaeological sites located in the transitional zone between the highlands and the desert . The excavations at the site were considered as rescue/salvage operations, which continued for a number of years. It was probably the largest excavation project to be undertaken and sponsored by the Department of Antiquities at that time. Several members of the DoA were trained at the site. However, the budget for the excavations and project members was very limited, which was the main reason for not processing the material towards final publication.
Sahab has a long history of occupation, extending from the Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic period (5th and 4th millenia BCE) to the Late Iron Age (6th century BCE). The site was apparently abandoned until the medieval Arabic Period (11th-13th centuries CE), evidenced by Ayyubid/Mamluk pottery sherds. There was another occupational gap from the 13th century to the 19th century CE, at which time the present inhabitants moved to the site.
This two-volume report brings to full publication the results of Yohanon Aharoni's 1954, 1959-1962 archaeological excavations at the site of Ramat Raḥel. The authors, who spent years locating and retrieving lost field cards, photographs and finds, present the earliest excavations at the site, until now only published in preliminary form. The full publication of Ramat Raḥel, with its palace renowned for its unique architectural plan, use of stone ornamentation and hundreds of stamped handles, is a welcome addition to scholarly literature on the history and archaeology of Judah during the Iron, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods.
Volume I offers the reader detailed architectural plans and field photos that serve as a base for a sound and meticulous evaluation of the site's stratigraphy and architecture. It poses an integrative approach that emphasizes well-contextualized pottery assemblages for the dating of the various architectural units.
Volume II is devoted to the full publication of thousands of Aharoni's finds from the diverse periods of settlement, which attest to the site's importance throughout history.
An addendum to the volume is the final publication of Gideon Solimany's 2000-2002 excavations, carried out in preparation of turning the site into an archaeological park.
Ramat Raḥel IIIwill be followed byRamat Raḥel IV,V, andVI, which are the reports of the more recent renewed excavations at Ramat Raḥel.
Tepe Hissar is a large Bronze Age site in northeastern Iran notable for its uninterrupted occupational history from the fifth to the second millennium B.C.E. The quantity and elaborateness of its excavated artifacts and funerary customs position the site prominently as a cultural bridge between Mesopotamia and Central Asia. To address questions of synchronic and diachronic nature relating to the changing levels of socioeconomic complexity in the region and across the greater Near East, chronological clarity is required. While Erich Schmidt's 1931-32 excavations for the Penn Museum established the historical framework at Tepe Hissar, it was Robert H. Dyson, Jr., and his team's follow-up work in 1976 that presented a stratigraphically clearer sequence for the site with associated radiocarbon dates. Until now, however, a full study of the site's ceramic assemblages has not been published.
This monograph brings to final publication a stratigraphically based chronology for the Early Bronze Age settlement at Tepe Hissar. Based on a full study of the ceramic assemblages excavated from radiocarbon-dated occupational phases in 1976 by Dyson and his team, and linked to Schmidt's earlier ceramic sequence that was derived from a large corpus of grave contents, a new chronological framework for Tepe Hissar and its region is established. This clarified sequence provides ample evidence for the nature of the evolution and the abandonment of the site, and its chronological correlations on the northern Iranian plateau, situating it in time and space between Turkmenistan and Bactria on the one hand and Mesopotamia on the other.
The Greek-Egyptian town of Naukratis in the Nile Delta was a major centre of cross-cultural contact in the ancient world. This catalogue presents the wealth of archaeological finds made in late 19th and early 20th century excavations at the site, well over 17,000 objects that are today dispersed in museums worldwide. Comprising Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Cypriot objects dating from the 7th century BC to the 7th century AD, it illustrates the rich and varied history of this important site.
Borġ in-Nadur, on the south-east coast of the island of Malta, is a major multi-period site, with archaeological remains that span several thousand years. In the course of the Late Neolithic, the steep-sided ridge was occupied by a large megalithic temple complex that was re-occupied in the succeeding Bronze Age. In the course of the second millennium BC, the ridge was heavily fortified by a massive wall to protect a settlement of huts. Excavations were carried out here in 1881 and again in 1959. This volume brings together a number of contributions that report on those excavations, providing an exhaustive account of the stratigraphy, the pottery, the lithic assemblages, the bones, and the molluscs. Additional studies look at other sites in Malta and in neighbouring Sicily in an effort to throw light on the late prehistory of the south-central Mediterranean at a period when connections with regions near and far were increasing. The volume forms a companion to another monograph which concentrated on the temple remains at Borġ in-Nadur (D. Tanasi and N. C. Vella (eds), Site, artefacts and landscape: prehistoric Borġ in-Nadur, Malta. Praehistorica Mediterranea 3. Monza: Polimetrica, 2011)
In 2008, during the cataloguing of some pre-Partition documents at Malakand Fort - in the former North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan - the author unveiled a significant group of unpublished documents referring to archaeological matters. The archival study, focused on three folders containing a total of 348 documents covering a period spanning from 1895 to 1937.
The corpus covers nearly forty years of British rule over the Malakand territories, and diplomatic contacts with the nearby Native States, like Swat. The corpus contains documents of different characters: from official notifications, to demi-official letters, annotated proofs and drafts, minutes, and copies of telegrams. The corpus documents in a very detailed way, often day by day, the genesis and evolution of the archaeological research in Malakand and Swat. The character of the protagonists, the evolution of the legal context, but also the gradual expansion of the field research, is revealed throughout the entire corpus. Contrasts and solutions concerning the protection of the archaeological heritage, the different approaches of the officers and scholars involved in the field over the years, as well as the feedback received from faraway head offices, all and more than this is accurately registered in that remote British outpost that was Malakand Fort.
At Malakand Fort three generations of brave British officers proved themselves within a complex environment, and a surprisingly vast range of duties. Moreover, the special interest attached to the corpus derives from some groups of documents, letters from and to Sir Aurel Stein, some of them in copy, others in original autographed manuscripts. These documents are all connected to the explorations of Sir Aurel Stein in Swat. A first group is linked to his 1926 trip to Swat and to his identification of the Indian Aornos of Alexander’s historians. The other three groups are related to three failed plans by Stein to carry out new explorations in Swat in 1928, in 1931, and in 1933.
The work presents the archival material in chronological order, and - through them - it attempts at reconstructing the history of the archaeology of the Malakand area and Swat.
The third volume of the publication series of the Russian Archaeological Mission at Giza contains the results of the archaeological research of the ancient Egyptian rock-cut tombs of the Old Kingdom, located to the south from the tomb of Khafraankh (G 7948), on the eastern edge of the Eastern Field of Giza Necropolis. In the course of excavations cult chapels with epigraphic material and burial shafts were discovered. The book consists of the publication of the excavated tombs and the analytical part. It includes the analysis architecture, epigraphy and archaeological context of the burials, the study of ceramic and anthropological materials and finds, discussion problems of dating the tombs, aspects of architecture and relief decoration.
Final Report on the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Excavations Directed by E.L. Sukenik and S. Yeivin, with the Participation of N. Avigad
This monograph presents the final excavation report of the Iron Age fortress at Tell Qudadi (Tell esh-Shuna) situated on the northern bank of the Yarkon river estuary in the central coast of Israel. The main excavations were conducted in 1937-38 and were published in a very preliminary form, dating the first phase of the fortress to the 10th or 9th century BC, whereas the second phase, attributed by the excavators to the northern Israelite kingdom, was ascribed to the latter part of the 9th century BC until 732 BC, when it was destroyed during the military campaign led by Tiglath-pileser III. Such a reconstruction of events was unreservedly accepted by other scholars. The present authors offer a new chronological scheme for two architectural phases of this impressive Iron Age fortress, suggesting a new chronological affiliation of the fortress to the period between the second half of the 8th and the first half of the 7th centuries BC. Accordingly, the site formed an integral part of the sophisticated logistical network that was created on behalf of the Neo-Assyrian rule. The study of the site's Iron Age IIB pottery assemblages enables a reassessment of a number of contested chronological issues in a wider Mediterranean setting.
Substantial ceramic and architectural remains attributable to the Late Bronze Age were excavated in Field XIII in 1968 by the Drew-McCormick Expedition. The Late Bronze Age sequence spanning the Late Bronze I, IIA, and IIB contains ceramics from occupational contexts and also from a cache of 850 restorable and complete vessels from a Basement Chamber sealed below destruction debris. This analysis provides data on the ceramic typological development and the technological processes or <em>chaîne opératoire</em> at a Northern Hill Country site. While mostly domestic in nature, the ceramic assemblage also comprises imported Cypriot White Slip and Base Ring Wares that place the territorial kingdom, governed by the ambitious ruler Lab'ayu, within a wider regional trade system encompassing the Dothan-Jezreel and Beth Shean Valley routes. The findings from this investigation align with recent scholarship that shows the early Late Bronze I was defined by contracted settlement over a protracted period of time, in contrast to the architectural and ceramic complexity exhibited in the Late Bronze IIA, and to a limited extent in the Late Bronze IIB. This report continues the effort to publish the excavation findings from ten seasons of excavations spanning 1957 to 1972 and originally led by Expedition Director G. Ernest Wright.
Sha‛ar Hagolan is a major Pottery Neolithic site (dated to ca. 8400–8000 cal BP) that spreads over ca. 20 hectares near the Yarmuk River, Israel. Eleven excavation seasons (in 1989–1990 and 1996–2004) had been conducted at the site by Prof. Yosef Garfinkel on behalf of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The excavations exposed ca. 3,000 sq.m. of the Yarmukian village. The site is well known for the planning of the settlement, specifically its courtyard buildings, each occupying several hundred meters and separated by systems of streets or alleys and passageways, and a well. The excavations yielded a wealth of archaeological material including pottery, flint, ground stone, very rich art objects and figurative items, as well as faunal and floral remains. These data supply a wealth of information on the Yarmukian economy and social life.
The 1331 ground-stone implements, which are the focus of this volume in the Sha‛ar Hagolan publication series, were retrieved from the large courtyard buildings. The main contributions of this report are threefold. Firstly, it gives a full and comprehensive descriptive account of the entire ground-stone assemblage of Sha‛ar Hagolan and thus enables comparison to other ground-stone assemblages and databases. Secondly, the structure of this book, divided into chapters each dealing with a specific tool type or group of types, allows us to focus on the specific characteristics and distinctive traits of the tools, including their typology, morphology, technology of production and other aspects. Finally, we offer a comprehensive discussion of the assemblage and the Yarmukian ground-stone industry.
Vol. II complements the stratigraphic and contextual presentation of Vol. I with synthetic overviews of site formation, the evolution of urban architecture, and Early Bronze Age ceramic industries, technology (including petrography) and typology. These studies are based on research conducted on the site and its materials since 2007. Further chapters are devoted to the lithic industries and the rich and diverse collection of stone artifacts and small finds. Highlights of this volume include the presentation of several household inventories, a corpus of more than 350 complete ceramic forms, and fine examples of Early Bronze Age art – figurines and zoomorphs, seal impressions and painted plaques.
The Shelby White and Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications presents the following book by Professor Vassos Karageorghis, former Director of the Cyprus Department of Antiquities and Dr Efstathios Raptou, Archaeological Officer of the Cyprus Department of Antiquities.
The book covers the period from the 11th cent. B.C. to ca 600 B.C. It includes ceramics, bronze and iron weapons and tools, bronze vases and armour, gold jewellery, scarabs, etc. In the chapter on historical conclusions V. Karageorghis places this material within the parameters of the Homeric world and the social and political conditions in Cyprus during the first part of the first millennium B.C.
Specialist scholars deal with topics like the scarabs, the weights, the bronzes, the skeletal remains, etc.
This is the first volume of this project, the authors are already preparing the second volume which will contain material from tombs of the 11th-9th centuries B.C., including some extraordinary bronze objects.
From the beginning of the new excavations at Troia the concept was to have two teams working side by side but with close interactions. The German team led by Manfred Korfmann concentrated on the Bronze Age and the American team led by Ch. Brian Rose on the Classical to Medieval periods. Originally the dividing line was easy to define, because then it was a common believe that after the end of the Bronze Age at Troia there was a hiatus in the sequence of the settlements. In addition it seemed that the ceramic inventory of the Bronze Age was dominated by gray wares while the later periods were characterized by red and buff wares. In the course of the project it became clear that this strict division was not possible and that there was a gradual transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age when there may have been a hiatus in the architecture but certainly not in the ceramic spectrum. Thus, also the division between the two teams merged into a joint endeavour and the new discoveries of this period are certainly one of the major achievements of the project. Accordingly, there are three volumes each planned for the Bronze Age and the Classical periods.
The first volume of the Bronze Age results summarizes the history of (more recent) research and the formation of the new excavation team. Then the applied techniques are explained in some detail and the concept for the preservation and presentation of this World Cultural heritage site. Chapter two begins with a detailed description of the site and the intensive survey that was performed in the area of the Lower City of Troia and is followed by descriptions of the archaeological and scientific methods used. The third chapter is devoted to cultural and natural environment of Troia and the reconstruction of its cultural history until the end of the Bronze Age. The second volume on the Bronze Age periods will present the results of the investigations based on stratigraphy, pottery and small finds from periods Troia I to Troia V that is the Early and the earlier Middle Bronze Age. It is in this period that Troia has always been and still is a crucial site for the chronology of the Aegean and the southern Balkans. During the excavations it became clear that there was a difference in the numbering of the major settlement units between Dörpfeld and Carl Blegen, which we will try to resolve. The third volume will be devoted to the Late Bronze Age periods Troia VI and VII and it will be shown that Troia continued to exist into the Early Iron Age or at least was not forgotten.