The final publication of Level XVI at Mersin-Yumuktepe is the terminal step of a long-term project. The aim of this publication is to integrate the data obtained by J. Garstang during the excavations conducted at Mersin-Yumuktepe (1936-39 and 1946-47) and published in 1953 in the monograph "Prehistoric Mersin," along with those produced during the excavations carried out from 1993-2004 under the direction of I. Caneva, for a comprehensive reconstruction of one of the most notorious levels of occupation at Yumuktepe. The long prehistoric occupational sequence reconstructed by Garstang, the first to have been established in the archaeology of Cilicia, quickly became one of the main references in the Near Eastern, Levantine, and East Mediterranean archaeology. In this framework, the unique evidence represented by the "Citadel" of Level XVI was often considered as a "hallmark" of Yumuktepe and a recurring "topos" of the archaeological discourse dealing with the chalcolithic societies of the region. To confront such a "giant" of Near Eastern archaeology and the heritage left by Garstang has not been an easy task. The integration of heterogenous data produced in the frame of different practices, epistemologies and narratives of archaeology has required a long, continuous and sometimes quizzical process of interpolation and negotiation between past and present archaeological evidence aimed at a detailed and attentive reconstruction of the economic, social and cultural developments of the Early-Chalcolithic community at Yumuktepe.
With appendices from J.A. Brinkman, E. Götting, and G. Hölbl
These volumes present the final report of the four archaeological campaigns carried out by the Oriental Institute at the site of Chatal Höyük in the Amuq (currently Hatay, Turkey) under the directorship of Ian McEwan and Robert Braidwood, more than eighty years after their field operations. The excavation’s documents (daily journals, original drawings, photos, lists of objects, and letters) stored in the Oriental Institute Archives, as well as the approximately 13,000 small finds and pottery sherds from the site currently kept at the Oriental Institute Museum, provided the necessary dataset for the analysis presented here. This dataset allowed the author to reconstruct the life of a village which survived the political turmoil in the period from the Late Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age (16th–6th centuries BC). If Chatal Höyük was during the Late Bronze Age a village in the provincial part of a large empire (Hittite), it became a large independent town in a small but powerful new political entity (Walistin) during the Iron Age I and II, before being conquered by the Assyrian Empire.
In this extended publication of small finds and pottery, many previously unpublished materials are made available to both general readers and scholars for the first time. The material culture discussed and analyzed here offers the chance to trace changes and continuity in the site’s domestic activities, to point out shifts in cultural contacts over a long period of time, and to monitor the construction of a new community identity.
with contributions by Louise Bertini, Thomas W. Davis, Scott D. Haddow, James K. Hoffmeier, Rexine Hummel, Hesham M. Hussein, Salima Ikram, Mark Janzen, Michelle A. Loyet, Claire Malleson, Carol McCartney, Stephen O. Moshier, and Gregory D. Mumford
This is the second and final volume of scientific and interdisciplinary reports on the excavations and research conducted at Tell el-Borg, north Sinai, between 1998 and 2008, written by the scholars and specialists who worked on the site under the direction of Professor James K. Hoffmeier.
This volume focuses on the cemetery areas, which yield more than a dozen tombs, typically made of mud brick, some of which were constructed for a single occupant and some of which were larger tombs that accommodated multiple family members. Included is a treatment of an area of “public” space featuring a temple and a well, among other things, and a study of the geological results of the nearby ancient Ballah Lakes that offers new data on the history of the Nile distributary that flowed by Tell el-Borg. The balance of the work deals with specialty reports, including the faunal and botanical remains, the clay coffins, and elite stones. A concluding chapter offers a synthesis of the decade of work and ties together the finds published in both volumes.
James K. Hoffmeier is Professor of Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern History and Archaeology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Additional contributions by Ilya Berelov and Steven Porson
The archaeological excavation of Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj provides the foundation for an unprecedented analysis of agrarian village life during an era of the Levantine Bronze Age characterised previously in terms of urban collapse and a reversion to mobile pastoralism. Interpretation of archaeological and ecological evidence here situates the lifeways of this community amid emerging revised chronologies and reconstructions of village-based society in the third millennium BC. This reconstruction of rural life integrates evidence of regional and local environmental change, agricultural coping strategies, intramural social change, interaction with neighbouring communities and ritual ties with preceding and subsequent periods. This synthesis centred on Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj suggests a strikingly revised portrait of rural society in the course of Near Eastern civilisation.
Steve Falconer (PhD, Anthropology, University of Arizona) has practised anthropological archaeology at New York University, Arizona State University, LaTrobe University and the University of North Carolina Charlotte. He co-directed (with P. Fall) the excavation and analysis of Tell el-Hayyat, Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj, Dhahret Umm el-Marar and Zahrat adh-Dhra‘ 1 along the Jordan Rift, and Politiko-Troullia on Cyprus.
Pat Fall (PhD, Geosciences, University of Arizona) is a geoscientist and biogeographer who has investigated ancient agrarian life and landscape formation in the Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea Basin, Cyprus, the Bahamas, Tonga and Samoa. She has served on the faculties of New York University, Arizona State University, La Trobe University and the University of North Carolina Charlotte.
REVIEWS ‘The quality of data presentation … is excellent. … [T]his data set represents what may perhaps be the most complete and comprehensive publication of this type of data for the EB IV and is exceptionally valuable for scholars working in this area. … [T]he authors do more than simply present the final results of their excavations; instead they provide thorough analysis and provide contextualization for these results.’ Prof. Susan Cohen, Montana State University
‘This research certainly has potential ramifications beyond the scope of the Southern Levant. … The discussions of methodologies employed for coping with environment might have interesting ramifications for present-day concerns re. climate change.’ Dr Stefan L. Smith, Ghent University
‘The data presented are of immense value, not only for a better understanding of the settlement history of the region, but also for a broader understanding of human adaptation in times of environmental change.’ Dr Hermann Genz, American University of Beirut
‘Highly original and deals with contemporary Levantine archaeological problems. … Although the excavation took place several decades ago, the authors are on top of the latest chronological debates in the field. … This is an excellent volume.’ Prof. Thomas E. Levy, University of California, San Diego